Essay human behavior

And it's why the evo psych tenet that men have an inherited mental module that causes them to prefer young, beautiful women while women have one that causes them to prefer older, wealthy men also falls apart. As 21st-century Western women achieve professional success and gain financial independence, their mate preference changes, scientists led by Fhionna Moore at Scotland's University of St Andrews reported in 2006 in the journal Evolution and Human Behaviour . The more financially independent a woman is, the more likely she is to choose a partner based on looks than bank balance—kind of like (some) men. (Yes, growing sexual equality in the economic realm means that women, too, are free to choose partners based on how hot they are, as the cougar phenomenon suggests.) Although that finding undercuts evo psych, it supports the "it depends" school of behavioral ecology, which holds that natural selection chose general intelligence and flexibility, not mental modules preprogrammed with preferences and behaviors. "Evolutionary psychology ridicules the notion that the brain could have evolved to be an all-purpose fitness-maximizing mechanism," says Hill. "But that's exactly what we keep finding."

Bilingualism is another response to language contact. In the United States, large numbers of non-English speaking immigrants arrived in the late 19 th  and early 20 th  century. Typically, their children were bilingual and their grandchildren were monolingual speakers of English. When the two languages are not kept separate in function, speakers can intersperse phrases from one into the other, which is called code switching. Speakers may also develop a dialect of one language that is heavily influenced by features of the other language, such as the contemporary American dialect Chicano English.

Once formed, enemy images tend to resist change, and serve to perpetuate and intensify the conflict. Because the adversary has come to be viewed as a "diabolical enemy," the conflict is framed as a war between good and evil.[7] Once the parties have  framed  the conflict in this way, their positions become more rigid. In some cases,  zero-sum  thinking develops as parties come to believe that they must either secure their own victory, or face defeat. New goals to punish or destroy the opponent arise, and in some cases more militant leadership comes into power.

The two sites from which Ar. ramidus fossils have been recovered (., Middle Awash and Gona) offer slightly different habitat reconstructions.  At Gona, many large mammal fauna associated with Ar. ramidus are intense grazers, which would indicate a habitat with a significant grassy component.  Other indicators from Gona, however, suggest that the environment was a more mosaic habitat, consisting of closed woodlands and more open, grassy environments.  Similar evidence from the parts of the Middle Awash region where Ar. ramidus has been found, in contrast, lead to reconstructions of a closed woodland. Although the Aramis reconstruction suggests a more closed environment, both habitat reconstructions are consistent with idea that bipedality initially evolved in a woodland environment rather than in a more open savanna grassland.

Essay human behavior

essay human behavior

The two sites from which Ar. ramidus fossils have been recovered (., Middle Awash and Gona) offer slightly different habitat reconstructions.  At Gona, many large mammal fauna associated with Ar. ramidus are intense grazers, which would indicate a habitat with a significant grassy component.  Other indicators from Gona, however, suggest that the environment was a more mosaic habitat, consisting of closed woodlands and more open, grassy environments.  Similar evidence from the parts of the Middle Awash region where Ar. ramidus has been found, in contrast, lead to reconstructions of a closed woodland. Although the Aramis reconstruction suggests a more closed environment, both habitat reconstructions are consistent with idea that bipedality initially evolved in a woodland environment rather than in a more open savanna grassland.

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